Irritable bowel syndrome: Pathophysiology
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder characterized by abnormal functioning of the rectum and the digestive system in general without tissue damage. According to the WHO, today one in five people on the planet suffers from this pathology. Most often it is people aged 30-40 years, and almost 70% of patients are women. In this article, we will tell you about Irritable bowel syndrome: Pathophysiology.
Causes of irritable bowel syndrome
Various factors can cause IBS, which can be divided into such groups:
- Biological. They are associated with an imbalance of the bacterial flora of the intestine, infectious lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, including acute intestinal infections, etc;
- Hormonal. Characteristic for women and related to the peculiarities of the hormonal background during different phases of the menstrual cycle;
- Neurological. Lead to this intestinal disease may be frequent stress, increased anxiety, depression, insomnia, etc;
- Social. First of all, it is unbalanced or improper nutrition, including an excess of unhealthy foods, overeating, low physical activity (as a consequence and weak muscles of the abdominal wall);
- Hereditary. If parents suffer from IBS, their children are more likely to have the disease.
Symptoms of the disease
The main manifestations of IBS depend on the specific form of this disease. Thus, the main symptom may be:
- diarrhea with frequent urges to the toilet;
- constipation with delayed defecation up to a week;
Treatment of IBS
To get rid of irritable bowel syndrome, both drug and non-drug therapy is indicated. The basis of the latter is a proper diet. Boiled, baked and steamed products should prevail in the diet if the patient complains of frequent constipation. With diarrhea it is recommended to exclude whole milk, whole grains and vegetables. With flatulence in the diet, it is worth minimizing foods that increase gas formation in the intestine and GI tract, including sugar and baked goods, fresh vegetables and grapes.
The selection of medications for the treatment of IBS is directly related to the cause and symptomatology. In some cases, laxatives are needed, while in others, it is necessary to use drugs that induce swelling and astringency. Prokinetics and antispasmodics are indicated to control flatulence. Antibiotics may be prescribed for microflora imbalance, and sedatives or even antidepressants may be prescribed for psychological causes of IBS.