The Current State and Prospects of Biotechnology

Advances in cytology, biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics in the second half of the 20th century created the prerequisites for controlling the elementary mechanisms of cell life activity, which contributed to the rapid development of biotechnology. Agarose Bead Technologies is the brand which follow all the biotechnological latest trends. Thanks to the selection of highly productive strains of microorganisms, the efficiency of biotechnological processes increased by tens and hundreds of times.

The peculiarity of biotechnology is that it combines the most advanced achievements of scientific and technological progress with the accumulated experience of the past, expressed in the use of natural sources to create useful products for humans. Any biotechnological process includes a number of stages: preparation of the object, its cultivation, isolation, purification, modification and use of the products obtained. The multistage and complexity of the process requires the involvement of a variety of specialists: geneticists and molecular biologists, cytologists, biochemists, virologists, microbiologists and physiologists, process engineers, designers of biotechnology equipment, etc.

Where cell and genetic engineering techniques can be used

Genetic engineering is a fundamentally new branch of biotechnology that allows the creation of artificial genetic structures by targeting the material carriers of heredity (DnA molecules). Applying genetic engineering methods, in principle, it is possible to construct completely new organisms according to a predetermined «blueprint».

The application of genetic engineering has led to the emergence of the so-called DNA industry, for example, the production of physiologically active substances of protein nature for medical and agricultural purposes.

There are already a number of unique achievements of genetic engineering — industrial production of interferon, insulin, human growth hormone, etc.

Genetically engineered synthesis of special microorganisms producing in large quantities such important substances as amino acids, enzymes, vitamins, and immune stimulants is very promising. Genetic engineering methods can be used for solving problems of biological nitrogen fixation, increasing the efficiency of biological methods of plant protection, creating new plant varieties and animal breeds. Genetic engineering methods can be used to correct hereditary diseases in humans, create tissue regeneration stimulants that can be used to treat wounds, burns and fractures.

Cell engineering. Thanks to the methods of cell engineering it has become possible to produce valuable products under artificial conditions (outside the body).

Using cell engineering, scientists managed to design new high-yield and disease-resistant, unfavorable environment valuable plants for the national economy. Hybrid varieties of potatoes, grapes, sugar beets and tomatoes have been developed. Using this technology it is possible to obtain even interspecific hybrids: apple-top cherry, potato-tomato, etc.

Engineering enzymology is a science that develops the basis for creating highly effective enzymes for industrial use, allowing to intensify technological processes repeatedly while reducing their energy and material intensity.

Enzymes (enzymes) are universal protein-catalysts, with the help of which all processes in a living cell are carried out. They exhibit extremely high catalytic activity, significantly exceeding the activity of catalysts of non-biological origin.

Enzymes are most widely used in the production of sugar for diabetics, some hormonal drugs used in medicine.

Why is it believed that biotechnology has made the most progress in medicine?

Currently, biosynthesis is used to produce antibiotics, enzymes, amino acids, and hormones.

For example, hormones used to be obtained from animal organs and tissues. Even a small amount of a therapeutic drug required a lot of starting material. Consequently, it was difficult to obtain the necessary amount of the drug and it was very expensive.

For example, insulin, a pancreatic hormone, is the main treatment for diabetes mellitus. This hormone had to be administered to patients all the time. It is difficult and expensive to produce from the pancreas of pigs or cattle. In addition, animal insulin molecules differ from human insulin molecules, which often caused allergic reactions, especially in children. Biochemical production of human insulin has now been established. The gene for insulin synthesis has been obtained. Using genetic engineering, this gene has been inserted into a bacterial cell, which has acquired the ability to synthesize human insulin.

In addition to obtaining therapeutic agents, biotechnology allows early diagnosis of infectious diseases and malignant tumors through the use of antigen preparations and DNA/RNA samples.

New vaccine preparations can be used to prevent infectious diseases.